I have been diving headlong into Compass Sprites for a large response redesign. The site has a ton of sprite images, so it seemed to be a perfect opportunity to learn as much as I could about spriteing. One of the problems I ran into was that Compass used @extend to add selectors to the background-image property. This obviously causes problems in media queries.
The solution is obviously to put the main sprite mixins outside of any media query and then use the more specific mixins inside media queries when needed.
The next problem was that one certain sprite wasn't supposed to show up until a desktop media query (it was to be hidden in a mobile context of this mobile first site). I couldn't call the main mixin and then hide it with background: none; I'd just have to rebuild the background again to override the background: none.
The solution I landed on was adjusting the background-size instead. So after calling the main mixin I just added a background-size: 0%, effectively hiding the entire sprite-sheet for those elements. Later on, inside my media query I just had to add a background-size: inherited, and the backgrounds were right where I left them.
I'm sure there are some other solutions out there, and if you know of a better one, I'd love to hear it! But this is something that worked for me, so I wanted to pass it along.